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Monday, September 15, 2008

Five Generations of programming languages

So far 5 generations of programming languages have been defined. These ranges from machine level languages (1GL) to languages necessary for AI & Neural Networks (5GL). A brief introduction of each of the five generations is given below:

1.First Generation Programming Language

First generation of programming language refers to machine language. Machine language is lower level language which uses object code (some times also known as machine code). Object code is the combination of binary digits. These languages directly talk to hardware.

2.Second Generation Programming Language

Second generation of languages is also low level language which is known as assembly language. Assembly languages are the interface between Machine level languages and High level languages.

3.Third Generation Programming Language

Third Generation programming languages are High level Programming languages like JAVA & C.

4.Fourth Generation Programming Language

This is the set of current generation programming languages. These languages are similar or closer to human languages.

General characteristics of 4GL are:

i.Closer to human languages
iii.Database supportive
iv.simple and requires less effort than 3GL
v.Non procedural

Different types of 4 GL are:

a. Query Generator
b. Report generator
c. Form Generator
d. Application Generator
e. GUI Generator
f. Relational Database Manager

5.Fifth Generation Programming Language

Languages used for writing programs for Artificial Intelligence, Neural Network, Plasma Computing etc. come under 5GL. This is the future of programming language.

Abbreviations used:

1. AI-Artificial Intelligence
2. 1GL-First Generation Programming Language
3. 2GL-Second Generation Programming Language
4. 3GL-Third Generation Programming Language
5. 4GL-Fourth Generation Programming Language
6. 5GL-Fifth Generation Programming Language

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